Whole grains

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We all know grains are good but there is more to the grains story than that. What are the health benefits of consuming whole grains? What makes a grain, whole? What are common sources of whole grains? This article will answer these questions and give you all the information you need to understand the whole story on whole grains and how to include them in your diet.

What are whole grains?

Whole grains are the entire grain seed of a plant. They can be consumed as a single food, such as oatmeal, brown rice, barley, or popcorn, or used as an ingredient in a food such as whole wheat flour in bread or cereal. The fiber content of different whole grain foods can vary considerably, depending on the food category and serving size. Some research demonstrates that the health-promoting effects of whole grains are attributed to more than fiber.

Refined grains differ from whole grains in that they have been milled to remove the bran and the germ from the grain. A diet that incorporates both whole and refined grains can provide balanced nutrition.

What are the health benefits of whole grains?

Eating a diet rich in whole grains may provide many health benefits including reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, weight management, digestive health, and maintaining normal blood glucose levels. Additionally, studies continue to show that including enough whole grain foods as part of a healthy diet may help with heart disease prevention and management.  Researchers have even observed that diets rich in whole grain foods tend to decrease LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol), triglycerides, and blood pressure, and increase HDL cholesterol (the  “good” cholesterol).

What are sources of whole grains?

There are many different types of whole grains including whole wheat, whole oats, whole grain cornmeal, popcorn, brown rice, whole rye, whole-grain barley, wild rice, buckwheat, triticale, bulgur (cracked wheat), millet, quinoa, and sorghum.

Whole grains can be found in a wide variety of foods such as oatmeal and quinoa, or they can be used as an ingredient in a food, such as whole-wheat flour in bread, cereal or grain bars. Other less common whole grains include amaranth, emmer, farro, grano (lightly pearled wheat), spelt, and wheat berries.

How many whole grains should I consume?

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [1] recommend consuming at least half your grains as whole grains. This means that at least three ounce-equivalents of whole grains per day are necessary to achieve the dietary recommendation of making half your grains whole. Here are three easy ways to meet the recommendation:

1. Consume 3 ounces of 100% whole grains and 3 ounces of refined grains.

2. Consume 2 ounces of 100% whole grains, 2 ounces of partially whole grain products, and 2 ounces of refined-grain products.

3. Consume 6 ounces of partly whole grain products. 

What are some meal ideas that could incorporate whole grains into my diet?


– Steel cut oats with nuts and peaches

– Breakfast burrito made with whole wheat wrap

– Whole grain cereal with milk and banana


– Mediterranean salad with whole wheat cous cous garbanzo beans, feta, tomatoes, and cucumber

– Quinoa salad with black beans, salsa and cheese


– Chicken curry with brown rice

– Whole wheat linguine with peppers and ground turkey


– Popcorn

– Yogurt with toasted barley granola


[1] 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 7th edition

[2] U.S. Department of Agriculture on grains

[3] Whole Grains Council



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You may have heard the terms “probiotics” and “prebiotics” and generally know they are good for you but there’s more to learn about these powerful components. Probiotics and prebiotics play key roles in digestive health and may be important for preventing chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. This article will give you all the information you need to understand what prebiotics and probiotics are and how they can improve your health. In addition, suggestions to incorporate probiotics and prebiotics into your diet will be provided so you can reap the benefits of these healthful components in your own life.

What are probiotics and prebiotics?

“Probiotics” are products that contain bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus that help promote GI health. In order to be classified as a probiotic, the specific strains must exhibit clinical health benefits and/or contain more than 108 organisms/gram at the end of manufacturing.

Prebiotics are, simply speaking, the “food” for beneficial bacteria. The definition of a prebiotic depends on three criteria: 1) prebiotics must be resistant to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by enzymes, and gastrointestinal absorption; 2) prebiotics must be fermented by intestinal microbiota; and 3) prebiotics must selectively simulate the growth and/or activity of the intestinal microbes associated with health and well-being. The use of prebiotics can help to maintain the bacteria found in the GI tract.

What are the health benefits?

Probiotics and prebiotics are most commonly known for their gastrointestinal and immune health benefits. Additionally, diets rich in probiotics and prebiotics can help reduce risk for certain types of cancers and colorectal diseases.

Probiotics may help:

  • Increase the number of helpful bacteria and reduce the number of harmful bacteria in your gut
  • Reduce the risk of certain infections, particularly those of the digestive tract
  • Control or reduce the risk of developing certain allergies
  • Prevent diarrhea and help with digestive regularity
  • Alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance

Prebiotics may help:

  • Improve absorption of minerals
  • Reduce the risk of colorectal disease
  • Enhance the immune system
  • Reduce inflammation

What are sources of probiotics and prebiotics?

Naturally fermented foods contain the highest amounts of live active cultures. These foods include yogurt, buttermilk, kefir, kombucha, kimchi, sauerkraut, miso, microalgae, and tempeh. While all these foods contain live cultures, to be classified as a “probiotic”, the live cultures must have documented health benefits. This is an important distinction since many products are labelled as containing “live active cultures” which may be confusing. For those who prefer not to consume probiotics in the form of food, probiotic supplements are a potential option to receive some of the health benefits. However, consuming probiotics from food sources have an added benefit since these foods may also contain fiber, micronutrients, and macronutrients.

Inulin, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of prebiotics. Inulin, FOS, and GOS are naturally occurring carbohydrates found in foods such as bananas, honey, leeks, onions, and garlic.

How much should I consume?

Currently, there is no daily recommended intake for probiotics or prebiotics. However, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends increasing intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, or fortified soy beverages.

What are some meal ideas that could incorporate probiotics and prebiotics into my diet?

  • Yogurt with live cultures
  • Pancakes topped with flavored yogurt and fresh fruit
  • Oatmeal with honey
  • Peanut butter and honey sandwich
  • Spinach, leek, and artichoke dip with pita bread
  • Garlic tomato sauce with fortified whole wheat penne pasta
  • Hamburger on a whole grain bun with sauerkraut slaw
  • Kabobs with onions, pineapple, peppers and steak
  • Banana with drizzled honey
  • Smoothie with yogurt, orange juice, honey and banana



[1] 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 7th edition. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/DietaryGuidelines/2010/PolicyDoc/PolicyDoc.pdf

[2] Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/probiotics/AN00389

[3] National Institutes of Health. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics



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Right now, almost two-thirds of Americans are overweight, and by 2030 more than half of our population may be clinically obese. Childhood obesity has tripled, and most of them will grow up to be overweight as well. The food industry blames inactivity. We just need to move more, but what is the role of exercise in the treatment of obesity?

To learn more, watch this 4-minute video:




Video courtesy of Dr. Michael Greger and NutritionFacts.org.


[1] K. R. Westerterp, J. R. Speakman. Physical activity energy expenditure has not declined since the 1980s and matches energy expenditures of wild mammals. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 32(8):1256 – 1263.

[2] Y. C. Wang, K. McPherson, T. Marsh, S. L. Gortmaker, M. Brown. Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet. 2011 378(9793):815 – 825.

[3] J. G. Bohlen, J. P. Held, M. O. Sanderson, R. P. Patterson. Heart rate, rate-pressure product, and oxygen uptake during four sexual activities. Arch Intern Med. 1984 144(9):1745.

[4] J. O. Hill, H. R. Wyatt, J. C. Peters. Energy balance and obesity. Circulation. 2012 126(1):126 – 132.

[5] D. M. Thomas, C. Bouchard, T. Church, C. Slentz, W. E. Kraus, L. M. Redman, C. K. Martin, A. M. Silva, M. Vossen, K. Westerterp, S. B. Heymsfield. Why do individuals not lose more weight from an exercise intervention at a defined dose? An energy balance analysis. Obes Rev. 2012 13(10):835 – 847.

[6] K. Casazza, K. R. Fontaine, A. Astrup, L. L. Birch, A. W. Brown, M. M. B. Brown, N. Durant, G. Dutton, E. M. Foster, S. B. Heymsfield, K. McIver, T. Mehta, N. Menachemi, P. K. Newby, R. Pate, B. J. Rolls, B. Sen, D. L. Smith Jr, D. M. Thomas, D. B. Allison. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. N Engl J Med. 2013 368(5):446 – 454.

[7] S. Dowray, J. J. Swartz, D. Braxton, A. J. Viera. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals. Appetite. 2013 62:173 – 181.

[8] E. R. Laskowski. The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity. Platinum Met. Rev. 2012 4(11):840 – 844.

[9] B. Swinburn, G. Sacks, E. Ravussin. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009 90(6):1453 – 1456.

[10] L. Dwyer-Lindgren, G. Freedman, R. E. Engell, T. D. Fleming, S. S. Lim, C. J. Murray, A. H. Mokdad. Prevalence of physical activity and obesity in US counties, 2001-2011: A road map for action. Popul Health Metr. 2013 11(1):7.

[11] B. Neal. Fat chance for physical activity. Popul Health Metr. 2013 11(1):9.

[12] Michele Simon. 2013. Clowning Around With Charity: How McDonald’s Exploits Philanthropy and Targets Children. Eat Drink Politics.


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Even with a large body of research that shows fiber contributes to a human health, research shows that Americans are still not consuming the recommended amounts of fiber each day [1-2]. Are you getting enough fiber? Read on to learn all about what fiber is, why you need it, and where to find it in food. This article will also provide helpful strategies so you can make fiber a focal point of your diet.

What is fiber?

Dietary fiber is the part of plants that cannot be digested and is often referred to as the “roughage” or “bulk.” Fiber includes all parts of plant foods that your body can’t digest or absorb. It passes relatively intact through your stomach, small intestine, and colon and out of your body. Dietary fiber naturally occurs in plants, helps provide a feeling of fullness, and is important in promoting digestive health.

Reading the nutrition facts panel will help you understand the fiber content in a food product. Dietary fiber is listed on every nutrition facts panel, so it’s easy to find foods rich in fiber. Foods with at least 10% of your Daily Value for fiber are considered a “good source,” while foods with 20% or more of your daily value are considered an “excellent source” of fiber.

What are the health benefits of fiber?

Consuming a diet rich in fiber can benefit health in many ways including providing digestive health benefits and weight management. Additionally, diets rich in fiber are associated with a reduced risk for developing certain diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and type II diabetes.

  • Fiber plays an important role in maintaining digestive health. Fiber cannot be broken down in your digestive tract, so instead of being absorbed, like other nutrients, it pushes the contents of your gut along. Remember to add fiber slowly to your diet to minimize gastrointestinal discomfort. Consult with a Registered Dietitian or doctor before making any major changes to your fiber intake.
  • Fiber can help with weight management. Foods high in fiber are processed more slowly by the body and tend to produce a feeling of fullness with fewer calories. High fiber foods require more chewing and may take longer to eat, giving your body time to recognize that it is full. Additionally, diets high in fiber can help support a healthier body weight.
  • Fiber also plays a role in lowering cholesterol and blood glucose levels. Whole grain oats, oat bran, oatmeal, oat flour, barley and rye provide a particular form of soluble fiber known as beta glucan which has been shown to help lower cholesterol. Beta glucan from whole grain oats forms a gel in the digestive tract. This gel binds cholesterol in the small intestine and helps remove it from the body. Consuming foods rich in soluble fiber, like oats, may also help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
  • Fiber acts like a clean up crew for your body. Diets rich in fiber are associated with a reduced risk of certain types of cancer such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Additionally, some research suggests that fiber may help reduce the risk of type II diabetes.

What are fiber-rich sources?

Fiber occurs naturally in a number of foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Beans and peas like navy beans, split peas, lentils, pinto beans, and black beans are also rich sources of fiber. Additionally, fiber is being added to many other packaged foods such as baked goods, granola bars, and cereals for added health benefits

How much fiber should I consume?

The RDI for fiber is 14 grams of fiber per 1,000 calories consumed each day. To find out how many calories is recommended, visit Food Plans at MyPlate.Gov. Additionally, fiber intake can be calculated based on age and gender:

Gender Age 50 or younger Age 51 or older
Men 38 grams 30 grams
Women 25 grams 21 grams
Chart adapted from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans


What are some meal ideas that could incorporate fiber into my diet?

  • Steel cut oats with chia seeds and apples
  • Whole wheat blueberry pancakes
  • Spinach salad with chicken
  • Bean burrito with cabbage slaw
  • Peppers stuffed with barley and lentils
  • Pork BBQ with baked beans and broccoli
  • Granola bar fortified with fiber
  • Popcorn



[1] USDA National Nutrient Database. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov

[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov

[3] U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.choosemyplate.gov

[4] Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fiber/NU00033/METHOD=print


health axiom, move more, eat food, drink water, exercise is medicine,get more sleep,wash your hands,teeth health

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Having healthy teeth is more important than we think. Except the fact we want to smile to the world with white and shiny teeth, the health of our teeth may effect our entire body. Heart disease, stroke and diabetes are a partial list of diseases that may be effected by having (or not having) healthy teeth. By making sure you do a few simple things you will help your teeth and body to stay healthy:

– Brush your teeth twice a day and floss daily.

– Meet your dental doctor every 6 month for general dental check and a thorough cleaning.

– Avoid too much sugar and eat smartly – a healthy and balance diet may significantly improve our health of our teeth, and therefore, the entire body. Try to avoid food or drinks with high amount of sugar like soft drinks, cakes or candies. Try to eat more whole-grain, nuts, legumes, fruit and vegetables.

– Avoid smoking – smoking encourages teeth discoloration, builds plaque on the teeth. It also increases the risk to develop gum disease and oral cancer, and the list just goes on!

– Replace your toothbrush 3-4 times a year.


Do you have more tips for maintaining healthy teeth? Let us know and we will add it to the list:)


The Health Axioms were created by Involution Studios, and are shared according to Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.


[1] Oral health by Web-Md.

[2] Nutrition by Mouth Healthy

[3] Oral health by Mayo Clinic.

artificial food color

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Artificial food colors (or color additives) are any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. Without color additives, colas wouldn’t be brown, margarine wouldn’t be yellow and mint ice cream wouldn’t be green. It is estimated that there are thousands of additives in our food supply [10]! Color additives are recognized as an important part of practically all processed foods we eat.

According to studies [1-9], artificial food colors may increase inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity among young children. They may also harm children’s brains and cause DNA damage in human liver cells. While many international food companies in Europe have taken color additives out of their products, in the rest of the world the situation hasn’t changed.

Please keep in mind that the facts mentioned in this post refer to artificial food colors and not to many of their natural substitutes. To learn more about artificial food colors and their influence, watch this 5-minute video:



Video courtesy of Dr. Michael Greger and NutritionFacts.org.


[1] R. B. Kanarek. Artificial food dyes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr. Rev. 2011 69(7):385 – 391.

[2] L. J. Stevens, T. Kuczek, J. R. Burgess, E. Hurt, L. E. Arnold. Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: Thirty-five years of research. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2011 50(4):279 – 293.

[3] B. Weiss. Synthetic food colors and neurobehavioral hazards: The view from environmental health research. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012 120(1):1 – 5.

[4] W.-T. Wu, Y.-J. Lin, S.-H. Liou, C.-Y. Yang, K.-F. Cheng, P.-J. Tsai, T.-N. Wu. Brain cancer associated with environmental lead exposure: Evidence from implementation of a National Petrol-Lead Phase-Out Program (PLPOP) in Taiwan between 1979 and 2007. Environ Int 2012 40:97 – 101.

[5] H. W. Mielke, S. Zahran. The urban rise and fall of air lead (Pb) and the latent surge and retreat of societal violence. Environ Int 2012 43:48 – 55.

[6] S. Kobylewski, M. F. Jacobson. Food Dyes A Rainbow of Risks. Center for Science in the Public Interest.

[7] B. Weiss. Artificial food color additives and child behavior: Weiss responds. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012 120(1):a17

[8] International Food Information Council (IFIC). 2010. Food Ingredients and Colors. Foundation US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

[9] T. J. Sobotka. 2010. Overview and Evaluation of Proposed Association Between Artificial Food Colors and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) and Problem Behaviors in Children. Interim Toxicology Review.

[10] Artificial food colors and ADHD by Dr. Michael Greger.

health axiom, move more, eat food, drink water, exercise is medicine,get more sleep,wash your hands,teeth health

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Here is an obvious fact: people use their hands a lot! Think about it. You wake up, turn the lights on, wash your face, brush (and therefore hold) your toothbrush and open the door knob when leaving the house. Later you will hold the driving wheel, shake hands, use your computer, cellphone and TV, pet a dog, hold your kid and of course EAT – and all is done with your hands.

Through our hands we may be infected or spread diseases like flu, viruses, stomach bugs, food poisoning and others. Washing hands will not prevent the spreading but for sure will reduce the chances for it. The action is very simple – wash your hands with soap and water or use a hand sanitizer. Do it at least:

– Before making or eating food.
– After you use the toilet.
– After you blow your nose or sneeze.
– After you pet your dog or cat, including feeding and cleaning their waste.
– After taking out the garbage.
– After you take care of someone who’s sick.
– After changing a diaper or help your child use the toilet.
– And if you are sick, wash your hands often and try to avoid touching things other people touch as much as you can.

Keep clean and be healthy! :]

06_WashYoursHands 06_WashYourHands

The Health Axioms were created by Involution Studios, and are shared according to Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.


[1] CDC – centers for disease control and prevention

brazil nuts

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The benefits of nuts are well-known, and more benefits are revealed constantly. Nuts (e.g. walnuts, almonds, macadamia nuts, brazil nuts and cashews) are a good source of protein, minerals and vitamin E. Nuts are also able to protect against DNA damage, suppress cancer growth and inflammation and reduce the risk of heart disease [3].

A new study revealed some crazy news about the connection between four brazil nuts consumption and cholesterol levels. Watch this 3-minute video to learn how a tiny change in your lifestyle may improve your health significantly:



Video courtesy of Dr. Michael Greger and NutritionFacts.org.


[1] E Colpo, C D de Avila Vilanova, L G B Reetz, M M M F Duarte, I L G Farias, E I Muller, A L H Muller, E M M Flores, R Wagner, J B T da Rocha. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers. J Nutr Metab 2013 2013:653185.

[2] R H Stern, BB Yang, N J Hounslow, M MacMahon, R B Abel, S C Olson. Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationships of Atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2000 40(6):616 – 623.

[3] Nuts by Dr. Michael Greger and NutritionFacts.org

Fit young woman fighting off fast food

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Did you know that certain foods or food components may provide health and wellness benefits? These foods, also known as “functional foods,” may play a role in improving overall well-being and reducing or minimizing the risk of certain diseases and other health conditions [1]. Functional foods are sometimes defined as “foods with benefits beyond basic nutrition” because they contain healthful components associated with specific health benefits beyond the basic macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and fat). Examples include fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and some types of seafood. By knowing which foods can provide specific health benefits, you can make food and beverage choices that allow you to take greater control of your health.

The IFIC Functional Foods Survey has been trending Americans’ attitudes towards health-promoting foods for many years, and the 2013 survey confirmed that people are aware that these foods exist and are interested in learning more. The majority of Americans also believe they are not getting all of the nutrients and food components needed for good health in their diet. As you can see from the image below, there is quite a discrepancy between what nutrients Americans think they are getting in their diet versus what they are actually consuming. Foods that contain healthful components can help fill the nutrient gaps in your diet.

Functional foods
So what foods should you look for to meet nutrient needs and improve overall health? The best advice is to include a variety of foods, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy, grains, etc as recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and ChooseMyPlate.gov [2], which would provide many potentially beneficial components. You can find a full chart of all the functional components in food and their associated health benefits on the IFIC website. Stay tuned for more articles on specific components such as probiotics and antioxidants, including why you should eat them, where to find them, and how much to eat.

[1] Position of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Functional Foods
[2] Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010

Greedy businessman cutting planet Earth

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Every year the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) presents the latest leading causes of death in the United States. This includes a robust analysis of the causes of death, and their breakdown in different states, genders and populations [1]. The goal of this post is not to focus on this morbid statistics. As always in Nutrino, we like to focus on the impact nutrition has. So today, we will ask ourselves (and the data…) a very important question: which of our top killers can be prevented by smart nutrition?

CDC reports from the last few years show that the top 15 leading causes of death remain mostly fixed in recent years [1]. They are (in this order):

1. Diseases of heart
2. Malignant neoplasms (cancer)
3. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (emphysema)
4. Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)
5. Accidents (unintentional injuries)
6. Alzheimer’s disease
7. Diabetes mellitus
8. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis (kidney failure)
9. Influenza and pneumonia
10. Intentional self-harm (suicide)
11. Septicemia (blood infection)
12. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis
13. Essential hypertension (high blood pressure)
14. Parkinson’s disease
15. Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids (lung disease)

Separating the leading causes of death according to gender reveals nearly the same list but in a different order. Men are more prone to die from unintentional injuries than women (guys – let’s not get reckless…).

Leading causes of death in the U.S.


1 out of every 2 Americans die from either heart disease or cancer. Together with strokes, these three diseases kill more people than all the other causes of death combined. It is very easy to think about this as only numbers. But they are not just numbers. Every one of us knows someone who suffered from these terrible diseases. Think about it.

A study from the UCSF proved that about 82% of heart diseases and strokes are preventable and even reversible by smart nutrition [2]. About half of cancer cases are preventable by smart nutrition as well, depending on the type of cancer [3].

Do the math to find out the following mind blowing fact:

Bad nutrition is the #1 cause of death in the United States

Similar statistics by the World Health Organization shows that the same is true for the rest of the western world [4].

But this is not everything. The food that you eat is actually much more powerful than you would imagine. In fact, smart nutrition is capable of preventing 14 out of our 15 top killers (the 14 are bolded above). Moreover, in many cases it is capable of reversing 5 of our 15 top killers (heart attacks, cancer, emphysema, diabetes and hypertension) [4].

This is an important story to tell, as it means that you have great control over your health. This is why I recommend sharing these figures with your friends and family – who knows, you may save lives!

So here is a great idea: let’s start eating healthy! I know it’s hard, as there are many temptations. We are surrounded with junk food all the time. But remember, healthy food is a pleasure. It is the only food that doesn’t only nourish your taste buds but actually nourishes your entire body. Not sure where to start? Just download Nutrino. We are here for you.

As a side note I just have to add that the story of bad nutrition as was told here is actually the reason why we founded Nutrino.


[1] Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2010, Center of Disease Control and Prevention

[2] Ornish, Dean, et al. “Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?: The Lifestyle Heart Trial.” The Lancet 336.8708 (1990): 129-133.

[3] Anand, Preetha, et al. “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes.” Pharmaceutical research 25.9 (2008): 2097-2116.

[4] Leading causes of Death, The World Health Organization

[5] Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, Dr. Michael Greger, 2012